Agranoff, Robert and Michael McGuire. 2001. American Federalism and the Search for Models of Management. Public Administration Review Vol. 61, no. 6: 671-681. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/0033-3352.00138/pdf (accessed 26 October 2011).
Four models of management within the changing U.S. federal management system are identified: the top-down model, the donor-recipient model, the jurisdiction-based model is defined by the initiated actions of local officials and managers who seek out program adjustments and other actors and resources to serve the strategic aims of their governments, and the network model. The first two models are long-standing and the latter two are emergent. All pose complex challenges for public managers.